Jubaan Logo


Microbiome and the Oral Cavity

Studies indicate that a considerable number of systemic diseases manifest themselves in the
oral cavity, on the tongue. Among these are gastrointestinal (GI) disorders.

Why Do We Focus on Microbiome

Different sites inside the body are home to distinct ecosystems of bacteria and other microorganisms. The microorganisms, known as microbiome, are more than just microscopic “hitchhikers” as they interact with their human host. The GI microbiome is generally regarded as a friend. However, this microbiome can turn into an enemy if the host–microorganism symbiosis is thrown off-balance. 

Microbiome: An Indication for Gastrointestinal Disorders

As the challenges for preventing GI diseases always exist, finding new techniques that detect indications growing deep inside the body and showing few symptoms before they have already spread, remains the call to action. The discovery of certain bacteria, specifically those living on the tongue, can distinguish patients with GI disorders from healthy individuals. By harnessing technology able to detect and analyze the presence of specific microbiome on the tongue, medical practitioners will improve the chances of early detection.

  • Burkhardt Flemer, Ryan D Warren, Maurice P Barrett, Katryna Cisek, Anubhav Das, Ian B Jeffery, Eimear Hurley, Micheal O’Riordain, Fergus Shanahan, Paul W O’Toole, (2017), The oral microbiota in colorectal cancer is distinctive and predictive.
  • Miller CJ, Spear G, Rothaeulser K, Fritts L, Gillevet P, et al. (2012) In captive rhesus macaques, cervicovaginal inflammation is common but not associated with the stable polymicrobial microbiome. Plos One in press.
  • Spear G, Rothaeulser K, Fritts L, Gillevet PM, Miller CJ (2012) In Captive Rhesus Macaques, Cervicovaginal Inflammation Is Common but Not Associated with the Stable Polymicrobial Microbiome. Plos One 7: 1-10.
  • Mutlu EA, Gillevet PM, Rangwala H, Sikaroodi M, Naqvi A, et al. (2012) Colonic microbiome is altered in alcoholism. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 302: G966-G978.
  • Dixon E, Clubb C, Pittman S, Ammann L, Rasheed Z, et al. (2011) Solid-Phase Microextraction and the Human Fecal VOC Metabolome. Plos One 6.
  • Komanduri S, Gillevet PM, Sikaroodi M, Mutlu E, Keshavarzian A (2007) Dysbiosis in pouchitis: Evidence of unique microfloral patterns in pouch inflammation. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 5: 352-360.
  • Spear GT, Gilbert D, Landay AL, Zariffard R, French AL, et al. (2011) Pyrosequencing of the Genital Microbiotas of HIV-Seropositive and -Seronegative Women Reveals Lactobacillus iners as the Predominant Lactobacillus Species. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77: 378-381.
  • Bajaj JS, Gillevet PM, Patel NR, Ahluwalia V, Ridlon JM, et al. (2012) A longitudinal systems biology analysis of lactulose withdrawal in hepatic encephalopathy. Metabolic Brain Disease 27: 205-215.
  • Gillevet P, Sikaroodi M, Keshavarzian A, Mutlu EA (2010) Quantitative Assessment of the Human Gut Microbiome Using Multitag Pyrosequencing.
  • Spear GT, Gilbert D, Sikaroodi M, Doyle L, Green L, et al. (2010) Identification of Rhesus Macaque Genital Microbiota by 16S Pyrosequencing Shows Similarities to Human Bacterial Vaginosis: Implications for Use as an Animal Model for HIV Vaginal Infection. Aids Research and Human Retroviruses 26: 193-200.
  • Rose DJ, Keshavarzian A, Patterson JA, Venkatachalam M, Gillevet P, et al. (2009) Starch-entrapped microspheres extend in vitro fecal fermentation, increase butyrate production, and influence microbiota pattern. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 53: S121-S130.
  • Spear GT, Sikaroodi M, Zariffard MR, Landay AL, French AL, et al. (2008) Comparison of the diversity of the vaginal microbiota in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women with or without bacterial vaginosis. Journal of Infectious Diseases 198: 1131-1140.
  • Naqvi A, Rangwala H, Spear G, Gillevet P (2010) Analysis of Multitag Pyrosequence Data from Human Cervical Lavage Samples. Chemistry & Biodiversity 7: 1076-1085.
    Chemistry & Biodiversity 7: 1065-1075.
    11. Ghannoum MA, Jurevic RJ, Mukherjee PK, Cui F, Sikaroodi M, et al. (2010) Characterization of the Oral Fungal Microbiome (Mycobiome) in Healthy Individuals. Plos Pathogens 6: 1-8.
  • Naqvi A, Rangwale H, Keshavarzian A, Gillevet P (2010) Network-Based Modeling of the Human Gut Microbiome. Chemistry & Biodiversity 7: 1040-1050.
  • Mutlu E, Keshavarzian A, Engen P, Forsyth CB, Sikaroodi M, et al. (2009) Intestinal Dysbiosis: A Possible Mechanism of Alcohol-Induced Endotoxemia and Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Rats. Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research 33: 1836-1846.

Privacy Policy

Who we are

Our website address is: https://jubaan.com.


When visitors leave comments on the site we collect the data shown in the comments form, and also the visitor’s IP address and browser user agent string to help spam detection.

An anonymized string created from your email address (also called a hash) may be provided to the Gravatar service to see if you are using it. The Gravatar service privacy policy is available here: https://automattic.com/privacy/. After approval of your comment, your profile picture is visible to the public in the context of your comment.


If you upload images to the website, you should avoid uploading images with embedded location data (EXIF GPS) included. Visitors to the website can download and extract any location data from images on the website.


If you leave a comment on our site you may opt-in to saving your name, email address and website in cookies. These are for your convenience so that you do not have to fill in your details again when you leave another comment. These cookies will last for one year.

If you visit our login page, we will set a temporary cookie to determine if your browser accepts cookies. This cookie contains no personal data and is discarded when you close your browser.

When you log in, we will also set up several cookies to save your login information and your screen display choices. Login cookies last for two days, and screen options cookies last for a year. If you select “Remember Me”, your login will persist for two weeks. If you log out of your account, the login cookies will be removed.

If you edit or publish an article, an additional cookie will be saved in your browser. This cookie includes no personal data and simply indicates the post ID of the article you just edited. It expires after 1 day.

Embedded content from other websites

Articles on this site may include embedded content (e.g. videos, images, articles, etc.). Embedded content from other websites behaves in the exact same way as if the visitor has visited the other website.

These websites may collect data about you, use cookies, embed additional third-party tracking, and monitor your interaction with that embedded content, including tracking your interaction with the embedded content if you have an account and are logged in to that website.

Who we share your data with

If you request a password reset, your IP address will be included in the reset email.

How long we retain your data

If you leave a comment, the comment and its metadata are retained indefinitely. This is so we can recognize and approve any follow-up comments automatically instead of holding them in a moderation queue.

For users that register on our website (if any), we also store the personal information they provide in their user profile. All users can see, edit, or delete their personal information at any time (except they cannot change their username). Website administrators can also see and edit that information.

What rights you have over your data

If you have an account on this site, or have left comments, you can request to receive an exported file of the personal data we hold about you, including any data you have provided to us. You can also request that we erase any personal data we hold about you. This does not include any data we are obliged to keep for administrative, legal, or security purposes.

Where your data is sent

Visitor comments may be checked through an automated spam detection service.